Sunday, May 20, 2012

The Labor Wedge

The labor wedge is a difference between the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between consumption and leisure, and the marginal product of labor (MPL).  That is, how willing you are to trade off leisure for consumption, and the degree to which you are able to do it.  If an individual may do so perfectly, then the labor wedge is zero.  It is given its name because all real taxes have distortionary effects, and most, if not all, have effects on labor.  If we look at measures of MRS and MPL, we can say "what tax rate explains this gap?"  This is what the labor wedge is:  essentially a structural "this is what taxes seem to be, given distortions in the economy."

Below, Corrections offers the labor wedge as offered in Rob Shimer's book, with data from Cociuba, Prescott, and Ueberfeldt (Simona Cociuba's website).  We graph two possible labor wedges:  one with a low Frisch elasticity of 0.5, and one with a Frisch elasticity of 4 (used for most macro settings).   The Labor Wedge is depicted graphically below (click to enlarge).

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

U.S. Employment and Hours as Percent of Previous Peak

Below, Corrections plots U.S. Employment (nonfarm and total private) and Hours (aggregate hours of nonsupervisory and production employees), along with dated NBER recessions (click to enlarge).

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Business Employment Dynamics: Where Jobs Losses and Gains Come From

Below, Corrections graphically depicts transformed Business Employment Dynamics data.  The two data series are the proportion of gross job losses generated by closing establishments, rather than contracting establishments (click to enlarge).  Similarly for gross job gains generated by opening establishments, rather than expanding establishments.

Three things seem to jump out of the figure:

  • Generally, around 20% of gross job gains and losses come from opening and closing establishments.
  • Compared to the proportion of gross job losses that come from closings, generally a higher proportion of gross job gains come from openings.
  • There has been a secular downward trend in the impact of closings and openings on employment.
The last point is probably bad news for the U.S. economy.